Uncategorized

Sum of an Arithmetic Progression

An arithmetic progression is a sequence of numbers where the difference between 2 successive numbers is constant. An example is: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8... This sequence is increasing by one each time. So, the more general definition for the i-th term in an arithmetic progression, where d is the constant difference, and a0 is the first term in the sequence, is given by the formula:

There is a formula to find the sum of the first n terms but you need not remember it since you can derive it on the spot with common sense. Assuming the simple case where d=1, if you pick the first and last element in the sequence and sum them you get n+1. Ignoring these 2 items from the list, if you do the same thing again you get 2+(n-1)=n+1, the same result. And if you do it again, you get the same result again: 3 + (n-2) = n+1. So a pattern emerges - selecting and removing the first and last element in the sequence and summing them gives (n+1) so the sum of all of these must be that number, n+1, multiplied by the number of pairs you can extract from the sequence, which is in fact n/2. Hence the sum of the first n terms in this particular sequence is (n+1)*n/2. A similar process can be applied regardless of the value of d.

Another way to visualise the result is to write down the sequence of numbers, then just below it write down that same sequence but in reverse order. Now sum each vertical pair and you'll see the same pattern: n/2 lots of (n+1).

It's amazing how many mathematical puzzles and technical interview questions reduce to this simple summation! Don't believe me - well here's a sample of puzzles/questions that are all easily solved if you know the sum of an arithmetic progression:

  1. In a sequential search, what is the average number of comparisons it takes to search through n elements?
  2. Given 100 boxes each of which, except one, contains 100 x 10g weights, whilst the remaining box has 100 x 9g weights in it. You need to identify the box that is lighter than the others but you can only use the scales once. [Thanks to Phil Lancaster, a work colleague of mine for throwing this devious puzzle at me one day.]
  3. Prove that the worst case run time for a bubble sort is O(n2)
  4. You have an array of size n-1 which is suppose to contain all the integers between 1 and n, without duplicates, except there is a missing number. You need to find the missing number using a constant-space algorithm
  5. You have an array of size n-2 which is suppose to contain all the integers between 1 and n, without duplicates, except two numbers are missing. You need to find the missing numbers using a constant-space algorithm

Answers

  1. If we assume that the answer to our search could be in any position from 1 to n, all with equal likelihood (i.e. a Uniform distribution, aka the distribution of maximum ignorance), then the average number of comparisons is equal to the sum of all possibilities divided by n. That is, the sum of the arithmetic progression above divided by n, which is (n+1)/2

  2. Enumerative combinatorics tells us that we'd need, at most, log2(n) weightings to identify which box has the lighter blocks - divide all remaining boxes into 2 halves, weigh one half of the boxes as a total unit, pick the lighter half, and repeat the process - but we are allowed only one! So consider redistributing the weights as follows: take all the weights out marking them with the box number they came from. Then, using one empty box, put 1 block from box1, 2 blocks from box2, 3 blocks from box3, ..., n-1 blocks from box(n-1) and n blocks from box(n). From our knowledge of the sum of an arithmetic progression we know what the total weight of the box, if all the blocks were 10g, would be 100/2*(100+1)*10g = 5050g. Now, box(j) contributes j blocks each of which is 10 grams for a total contribution of 10.j grams. If box(j) is the lighter box then it will only contribute 9.j grams, a difference of exactly j grams. Blocks from all other box will not deviate from there expected weights since only 1 box originally had lighter blocks. Given this, it follows that the weight difference between actual weight of the specially prepared box and theoretical total weight using our formula always gives the precise box number of the original light box.

  3. The bubble sort uses pairwise comparisons to sort lists. The worst case for the bubble sort is when the list is in strictly descending order when you are trying to put it into ascending order. In this case the algorithm compares the first element to (n-1) other elements, and then compares the second element to (n-2) elements to it's right, and then compares the third element to (n-3) elements to it's right, etc, etc. So in total the number of comparisons is (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + (n-4) + ...+ 2 + 1 = n/2(n-1). Expanding this out to polynomial form it has it's highest power of n being 2, hence complexity theory classes this as O(n2).

  4. This seems simple at first - just iterate through the list updating an array to indicate which items you have, but this approach does not meet the constant space limitation imposed in the wording of the question. It would require O(n) space. i.e the space required grows linearly with the size of the list.

    But if we allocate some space to store a running total which we update as we iterate through the list, once we reach the end of the list we can compare the running total with the theoretical total that we can calculate using, you guessed it, the sum of an arithmetic progression we can easily identify the missing integer. This approach has constant space complexity.

  5. This problem is an extension of the previous one. In the previous case we had a single equation with a single unknown that was easily solved. Now we have a single equation with 2 unknown numbers. If you remember anything about solving simultaneous equations you'll know this is not a good situation. However, once again we can make use of some simple algebra to help out. Instead of summing all the terms we can calculate the product of them. The theoretical value for this, n!, is known assuming n isn't too large, so we can compare the calculated value to the theoretical value and now we have 2 equations which we can use to solve for the 2 unknowns, and we've used only constant space complexity to do it. Viola!

Uncategorized

Applied Number Theory: One Way Functions

Whilst many developers have to incorporate a degree of "security" or "crypto" elements into products they build, it recently came to my attention that many developers have a thin grasp of the mathematical concepts that underpin the foundations of cryptography. I guess it shouldn't have surprised me, but none-the-less it did.

For example, many developers will tell you that passwords should not be stored in clear-text in the database, but rather the hash of the password should be stored. That is excellent advice, but when probed on hash functions - what exactly are they, how do they work, what assumptions do they make, etc - you'll quickly find that it is an area that isn't well understood by many developers.

Under the covers hash functions are specialized one way functions. One way functions are a cryptographic primitive that, by definition, are "easy" to compute in one direction but "hard" to calculate in the other direction, that is, finding the inverse.  In this context, "easy" means solvable in polynomial time, and "hard" means, on average, the inverse for some randomly given value is not solvable in polynomial time. That is, easy means ∈ P, and hard means ∈ NP.

An Example

Let me give an example to demonstrate the easy/hard asymmetry that gives the one way function it's power. Consider the following equation:

c ≡ be mod m   (1)           [ here b is the "base", e is the "exponent", and m is the "modulus" ]

This is called modular or discrete exponentiation and it is a carefully constructed equation to exhibit qualities that make it a suitable one way function. Essentially, (1) consists of 2 components: an exponentiation operation, be, and a modulus operation. It's clear that evaluating be requires e-1 multiplication operations. This can also be seen by considering the recurrence relationship :

be = b. b(e-1) (2)

= b. b. b(e-2)

...

= b. b. b. b.  ... .b

The astute reader will note that we can perform this more efficiently by computing b2, and then multiplying that by itself to get b4 and so on to get b8,  b16,  b32 and so on. We can see that this approach requires approximately log2(e) operations. This is called exponentiation by squaring. It should be noted that there is considerable efficiency to be gained in using an Θ(log2e) algorithm over a Θ(e) algorithm when e is large.

The second component needing evaluation in (1) is the modulus operation. This involves dividing be by m and finding the remainder. So overall we can be certain that we have an expression that can be solved in polynomial time. Let's now consider the inverse function. That is, calculating e for given values of c, b and m. The equation is:

e = loge (b) -> Zn (3)

This is a discrete logarithm to base e in Zn and the tractability of such a problem is known to be hard and have no efficient solutions (unless of course, you have a quantum computer). Ergo, modular exponentiation is an elegant construction that can be used as a cryptographic one way function. Indeed, this particular function is the basis of the ElGamal encryption scheme.

Underlying Assumptions

The strength of one-way functions is in the difficulty in calculating the inverse. In the forward direction we have a problem ∈ P, and in the the reverse direction we have a problem ∈ NP. Clearly, we are assuming that:

PNP (4)

(4) is considered to be one of the most fundamental, yet difficult, open unresolved mathematical equations. Presently this assumption stated in (4) is a safe, albeit unproven, assumption as the majority of mathematicians believe (4) to be true as it has been scrutinized over many years without being disproved. The importance of this assumption is exemplified by the lucrative financial rewards (1 million USD) on offer from the Clay Institute for a formal proof or disproof. To date, however, no one has been able to offer such a proof. Until that happens cryptographers will continue to assume this is the case.